- For alternate meanings of Toronto see Toronto (disambiguation)
City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Motto: Diversity Our Strength|
|Area:|| 629.91 sq. km.|
- Total (2001)
- Cdn. CD Rank:
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|Jean Augustine, Carolyn Bennett, Sarmite Bulte, John Cannis, Roy Cullen, Ken Dryden, John Godfrey, Bill Graham, Tony Ianno, Jim Karygiannis, Jack Layton, Derek Lee, John McKay, Dan McTeague, Maria Minna, Jim Peterson, Yasmin Ratansi, Judy Sgro, Mario Silva, Alan Tonks, Joe Volpe, Tom Wappel, Borys Wrzesnewskyj
|Lorenzo Berardinetti, Laurel Broten, Michael Bryant, Donna Cansfield, David Caplan, Mary Anne V. Chambers, Marilyn Churley, Mike Colle, Joseph Cordiano, Alvin Curling, Brad Duguid, Gerard Kennedy, Monte Kwinter, Rosario Marchese, Gerry Phillips, Michael D. Pure, Shafiq Qaadri, Tony Ruprecht, Mario Sergio, George Smitherman, Kathleen O. Wynne, David Zimmer |
|Governing body||Toronto City Council
|City of Toronto|
Toronto (43n39, 79w23 EST) is Canada's largest city and the provincial capital of Ontario. Its population is 2,482,000 (Torontonians) (2003 Statistics Canada estimate); that of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is 5,600,000 (2003). Approximately one-third of the Canadian population lives within a five-hour drive of Toronto, and about one-sixth of all Canadian jobs lie within the city limits.
The City of Toronto has a physical area of approximately 630 km² (243 square miles) and is bounded by Lake Ontario to the south, Etobicoke Creek and Highway 427 to the west, Steeles Avenue to the north, and the Rouge River to the east.
The GTA extends beyond the city boundaries and includes the regional municipalities of Halton, Peel, York and Durham.
The GTA is part of a larger, natural ecosystem known as the Greater Toronto Bioregion. This ecosystem is bounded by Lake Ontario, the Niagara Escarpment, and the Oak Ridges Moraine, and includes several watersheds that drain into Lake Ontario.
Up until the 1970s, Toronto was the second largest city in Canada, after Montreal. The economic growth of Toronto was greatly stimulated by the completion in 1959 of the St. Lawrence Seaway which allowed ships access to the Great Lakes from the Atlantic Ocean. Further growth in the Toronto area is often attributed to the rise of the separatist movement in Quebec and the election of the Parti Québécois; in 1976. The PQ enacted several French-language laws that were unfavourable towards businesses and English-speaking Montrealers, a number of which relocated to the more anglo-friendly Toronto.
The current mayor of Toronto is David Miller.
Located on the northern shore of Lake Ontario, Toronto was originally a term of indeterminate geographical location, designating the approximate area of the future city of Toronto on maps dating to the late 17th and early 18th century. Eventually the name was anchored to the mouth of the Humber River, the end of the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail portage route from Georgian Bay; this is where the city of Toronto is located today.
The source and meaning of the name remains a matter of debate. Most common definitions claim that the origin is the Huron word toran-ten for "meeting place". However, it is much more likely that the term is from the Mohawk word referring to "the place where trees grow over the water", a reference to a specific location at the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, then known as Lake Toronto. The portage route up the Humber River eventually leads past this well known landmark. As the portage route grew in use, the name became more widely used and was eventually attached to a French trading fort just inland from Lake Ontario on the Humber.
Part of this confusion can be attributed to the succession of peoples who lived in the area during the 18th century: Huron, Senecas, Iroquois, and Mississaugas (the latter having lent their name to Toronto's modern-day western suburb). Until the beginning of British colonization there were no permanent settlements, though both native peoples and the French did try, including the construction of another small fort near the mouth of the Humber, currently buried on the grounds of the Canadian National Exhibition.
European settlement in central Canada was quite limited before 1788, amounting to only a few families, but it began growing quickly in the aftermath of the American Revolution. United Empire Loyalists, American colonists who refused to accept being divorced from the United Kingdom, or who felt unwelcome in the new republic, often came north to the unsettled lands north of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; some had fought in the British army and were paid with land in the region. In 1788 the British negotiated the purchase of more than a quarter million acres of land in the area of Toronto. The site was then chosen by Governor John Graves Simcoe as the capital of the newly organized province of Upper Canada on July 29, 1793.
Specifically the town, then known as York, was built inland from the Toronto Islands, a chain of small islands leading into a marsh at their eastern end, with an opening at the western end. This formed a natural protected harbour, one that was defended with the construction of Fort York at the entrance on what was then a high point on the water's edge with a small river on the inland side (Garrison Creek). The town proper was formed closer to the eastern end of the harbour, near what is now Parliament Street.
Governor Simcoe was concerned with opening military communications between the settlements in the southwest of Upper Canada (notably Niagara-on-the-Lake, then known as Newark), and those to the east (Kingston, then points east to the border with Lower Canada). Dundas Street was the western route, leading to the town of the same name near Hamilton, but then continued west instead of southeast towards Niagara, and today it ends near the US border at Windsor. Kingston Road today forms the basis of the major Toronto-Montreal route. A third route, Yonge Street, was opened northward to Lake Toronto, then renamed Lake Simcoe and cut in three years. Yonge Street now forms the dividing line between east and west in Toronto, and is sometimes called "the longest street in the world" as it snakes its way for 1,896 kilometers to Rainy River, on the Minnesota border.
In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, York was attacked and partially burned. It was in retaliation for this that British forces attacked Washington, DC, the next year. Fort York was lightly manned at the time, and realizing that a defence was impossible, the troops retreated and set fire to the magazine. It exploded as the US forces were entering the fort, and many US soldiers were killed in the explosion. After the US forces left a new and much stronger fort was constructed several hundred yards to the west of the original position. Another attack in 1814 was beaten off with ease, the landing force never even being able to approach the shoreline. This newer fort now lies hundreds of yards inland due to landfill being dumped into the lake, and what was then a high point is largely invisible behind the Gardiner Expressway.
In 1834 the town reverted to the name Toronto and this was the name the city was incorporated under on March 6 of that year, with William Lyon Mackenzie as its first mayor. Toronto was the site of the key events of the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1837.
Growth continued to be slow and even in the late 1800s one artist managed to paint a map of the town including every individual building. Nevertheless modern amenities came to Toronto, including an extensive (and still existing) streetcar network in the city plus long-distance railways and interurban lines (called radial railways in Ontario). One radial line ran mostly along Yonge Street for about 80 km to Lake Simcoe, and allowed daytrips to its beaches. At the time Toronto's own beaches were far too polluted to use, a side effect of dumping garbage directly in the lake. The Grand Trunk Railway and the Great Northern Railway joined in the building of the first Union Station in the downtown area.
As the city grew it became naturally bound by the Humber River to the west, and the Don River to the east. Several smaller rivers and creeks in the downtown area were routed into culverts and sewers and the land filled in above them, including both Garrison Creek and Taddle Creek, which runs through the University of Toronto. At the time they were being used as open sewers, and becoming a serious health problem.
Don has an especially deep ravine, cutting off the east at most points north of the lakeshore. This was addressed in 1919 with the construction of the Prince Edward Viaduct, better known today as the Bloor Street Viaduct, linking Bloor Street on the western side of the ravine with Danforth Avenue on the east. The designer, Edmund Burke, fought long and hard to have a lower deck added to the bridge for trains, a cost the city was not willing to provide for. Nevertheless he finally got his way, and thereby saved the city millions of dollars when the TTC subway started using the deck in 1966.
The Prince Edward Viaduct represented a turning point in Toronto's history. Now linked to what were formerly separate towns, Toronto "filled out" in the first half of the 20th century, becoming a single larger city.
In 1904 a large section of the downtown was destroyed in the 1904 Toronto fire, but it was quickly rebuilt.
As the rural areas surrounding the city began to be transformed into suburbs during the postwar boom, the need for more coordination of city services became apparent. As a result, in 1953, the new Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto was created, and came into being on January 1, 1954, as a new regional level of government. It encompassed East York, Etobicoke, Forest Hill, Leaside, Long Branch, Mimico, New Toronto, North York, Scarborough, Swansea, Toronto, Weston, and York. These thirteen townships, villages and cities continued to exist and provide services, with the so-called "Metro" government gradually taking over services that crossed municipal boundaries, such as water supply, transit, and expressways.
]]On January 1, 1967, several of the smaller municipalities were amalgamated with larger ones, reducing their number to six. Forest Hill and Swansea became part of Toronto; Long Branch, Mimico, and New Toronto joined Etobicoke; Weston merged with York; and Leaside amalgamated with East York.
This arrangement lasted until 1998, when the regional level of government was abolished and the six cities (Toronto, Etobicoke, North York, East York, York, and Scarborough) were amalgamated into a single 'giant' municipality. Many people criticized this change, which came on top of a massive "downloading" of provincial services to the municipal level, with little to no new revenue sources. The overwhelming majority of the citizens of Toronto opposed amalgamation, as proven by a referendum in that year. However, the Province of Ontario under Premier Mike Harris had the formal power to ignore this referendum, and did so. Mel Lastman, the long-time mayor of North York before the amalgamation, was the first mayor of the new ("megacity of") Toronto.
At this point the definition of Toronto itself came into some doubt. In the 2000 Toronto municipal elections, over 88% of those voting did so for a Mayor that had discussed forming a new Province of Toronto - the second-place finisher Tooker Gomberg (8%) strongly favoured this move, while Mel Lastman (80%) also voiced his support. His statements were far more likely an attack on the provincial government, rather than a serious proposal, however, and after winning the election did nothing to advance this idea. The notion was also favoured by urban activist Jane Jacobs. In all probability such a separation is legally difficult or impossible - under the Canadian constitution the municipalities have no actual power; they are just permitted to make use of provincial authority.
This of course was one of the main problems that had concerned the activists - a few small groups, notably the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty, advocated an extended campaign of property damage and resistance to Ontario's government. This led to Toronto's first large-scale riot in the summer of 2000 - a violent confrontation in front of the provincial legislature - as well as several smaller such events in 2001. When prominent federal politicians including Paul Martin and later Jack Layton (New Democratic Party of Canada leader and for 20 years a Toronto City Councillor) began promising a "new deal for cities", and large banks began issuing papers on it, the rhetoric in general became more muted and support for violent or radical solutions had faded. None of these deals have, however, been realized.
In 2002 Toronto hosted the World Youth Day 2002 and Pope John Paul II. The municipal government's two largest unions, Locals 79 and 416 of CUPE (Canadian Union of Public Employes) went on strike a few weeks before the scheduled event, meaning that services such as libraries, day care, parks programs, and other important services were not available. Since city workers also pick up garbage and recycling, city parks were piled high with trash; some parks were designated official dump sites for the duration of the strike, while others were used as illegal dumps. The Ontario government tabled back-to-work legislation to end the strike, so the city was back to normal before World Youth Day started.
In 2003 Toronto was hit by the SARS epidemic. Although the disease was primarily confined to hospitals and health-care workers, tourism in Toronto suffered because of media reports. To help recover the losses the city suffered in industries and tourism, the city held a "SARS Benefit Concert" featuring many famous
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