Feyerabend and the problem of autonomy in science
There has been a post-Kuhn trend to downplay the difference between science and pseudoscience, as Kuhn's work largely called question to the Popperian ideal of simple demarcation, and emphasized the human, subjective quality of scientific change. The radical philosopher of science Paul Feyerabend went so far as to claim that there can be found no method within the history of scientific practice which has not been violated at some point in the advancing of scientific knowledge. Both Lakatos and Feyerabend suggest that science is not an autonomous form of reasoning, but is inseparable from the larger body of human thought and inquiry. If so, then the questions of truth and falsity, and correct or incorrect understanding are not uniquely empirical. Many meaningful questions can not be settled empirically -- not only in practice, but in principle. Feyerabend also infamously claimed that witchcraft and astrology should be considered as scientific as any of the canon scientific disiciplines.
The problem of demarcation is considered solved by some, for others there is no such thing as an autonomous scientific method, no definitive philosophy of science and no clear and agreed-upon distinction between science and pseudoscience.
Examples of Pseudoscience
Main article: List of alternative, speculative and disputed theories
Examples of fields of endeavor that many consider – to varying extents – pseudoscientific include Cold fusion, pseudoarchaeology, Gene Ray's Time Cube, astrology and homeopathy. Pseudoscientific science and medical practices are often quite popular. Medical pseudosciences even sometimes show notable theraputic benefits, possibly due to the placebo effect or observer bias. Many pseudosciences are associated with the New Age movement and there is a tendency to improperly associate all practices of the "New Age" with pseudoscience.
There are also young fields of science that are sometimes frowned upon by scientists from established fields, primarily because they are speculative in nature:
These fields are not considered pseudoscientific or protoscientific by most scientists, though, and they are studied at many universities and specialized institutes. SETI and CETI advocates do generally not claim that extraterrestrials exist, although most consider the possibility likely (see