Before the Spanish arrived, Peru was home to various Pre Inca cultures and later, to the Inca Empire.
Francisco Pizarro arrived to Peruvian coasts in 1532 and by the end of the 1530s, Peru became a Viceroyalty and a major source of gold and silver for the Spanish Empire.
Peru declared independence from Spain on July 28, 1821.
The western coastal plains (costa) are separated from the eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva) by the high and rugged Andes in center (sierra). On the border with Bolivia lies Lake Titicaca, the worlds highest navigable lake at 3821 m.