Klingon is an agglutinative language, using mainly affixes in order to alter the function of words. Some nouns have inherently plural forms (jengva' plate vs ngop plates, for instance).
Klingon nouns take suffixes to indicate grammatical number, gender, two levels of deixis, possession and syntactic function. In all, 29 noun suffixes from five classes may be employed: jupoypu'na'wI'vaD for my beloved true friends.
Verbs in Klingon are even more complex, taking suffixes from nine classes. Verbs are marked for aspect, certainty, predisposition and volition, dynamic, causative, mode, negation, and honorific, and the Klingon verb has two moods: indicative and imperative.
Word order in Klingon is OVS, and in some cases the word order is the exact reverse of word order in English:
vaj mojaq.mey.vam DI.vuS.nIS.be' 'e' vI.Har
thus-ADV suffix.PL.DEM 1pl-3pl.limit.need.not that 1sg-3sg.believe
I believe that we do not need to limit these suffixes in this way
The official Klingon writing system is the Latin alphabet as used above, but on the television series, the Klingons use their own alien writing system. This writing system is fictitious and the symbols are merely graphic elements designed to emulate real writing.
The extended Qo'noS font was designed for Star Trek: The Motion Picture by the Astra Image Corporation. They based the letters on the Klingon battlecruiser hull markings (three letters) first created by Matt Jeffries, and on Tibetan and Devanagari writing because these scripts had sharp letter forms - a testament to the Klingons' obsession for knives and blades.
The script only contains ten (twelve in the version used in the TOS films) symbols assigned to ten English letters in BitStream's Paramount-endorsed font. The font contains letters for e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m and n. The font has been used to write Klingon (with many of the klingon letters representing more than one English letter) on numerous Paramount endorsed Skybox trading cards (known cards include s7, s8 and s9, from Star Trek TNG's series 2 trading cards, season 5 card 509 (checklist B) and the season seven card selection s37, s38 and s39). These cards exist as the only canon translation of Klingon writing, though this is not well known.
However another unofficial assignment of the characters with sounds (which also contains many made up characters) was given by an unnamed source at Paramount to a fan group. Michael Okuda, the TNG scenic designer, and other Paramount staff have repudiated the mapping.
Nevertheless, in September 1997 Michael Everson made a proposal for encoding this in Unicode. The Unicode Technical Committee rejected the Klingon proposal in May 2001 on the grounds that research showed almost no use of the script for communication, the vast majority of the people who did use Klingon employing the Latin alphabet by preference.
A second script - again based more closely on the D7 battlecruiser hull markings - known as the Klinzhai or Mandel script, was included in The U.S.S. Enterprise Officer's Manual (1980), loosely upon the conceptual art of Matt Jeffries", TOS set designer. It maps to various various letters and digraphs of English, but the phonemes have no discernable relation to Marc Okrand's Klingon Language.
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