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Firearm actionIn firearms terminology, an action is the system of operation that the firearm
employs to seal the breech (in a breech-loading firearm), and to load
consecutive rounds. Most commonly this is accomplished by means of a
breech-block, which reciprocates in the receiver of the firearm. Important
factors in the naming of a particular action type depends on how it gets its
motive force (i.e. what energy is employed to operate), and how it locks the
The following list shows most of the various types of breech-loading firearms
Direct blowback (A typical submachine gun, e.g., MP-18, MP 40, Uzi, HK UMP)
Direct blowforward (Semmerling LM-4, Hino-Komuro, Schwarzlose Pistol)
Grooved chamber (Russian Modernized Makarov Pistol)
Roller-Locked delayed blowback ( Heckler und Koch HK G3, HK MP5, HK P9, Ceska Zbrojovka CZ-52)
Blish Lock ( Thompson submachine gun (i.e., the "Tommy Gun")
Rotational Hesitation System
Schwarzlose System (links are rotated by bolt on rearward travel)
Mannlicher ( forced rotation of bolt on rearward travel)
Modified (forced rotation of barrel on rearward travel)
Can force rotation counter-torque, or with torque.
Barrel can be spring-loaded (use recoil spring) to resist rotation.
Rotating Cam Striker
Gas-impingement design (HK P7, Steyr GB)
Delay-block action (Remington Model 51)
Inertia-locked (Benelli Shotguns)
Short-recoil ( Colt M1911, CZ75, Browning Hi-Power, HK USP, GLOCK)
Long-recoil (Browning Automatic Shotgun, Femaru STOP Pistol)
Short-stroke ( FAL rifle, HK G36, XM8, MP7, SA80, SKS rifle, et al.)
Long-stroke ( AK-47, AK-74, et al.)
Direct impingement ( AR-15, M-16, AG-43 Ljungman)
Manually operated magazine fed breech loader,
Manually operated single shot cartridge loading
Falling Block (Sharps)
Rolling block (Remington)
Breech loading single shot without cartridge
Hall Breechloader used a short breech section that tilted up for reloading
Ferguson Breechloader used a lever operated, threaded port, perpendicular to the line of bore
Muzzle loading rifles
Matchlock - trigger swings lit match to ignite powder train
Arquebus - trigger releases mechanical watch spring which rotates steel against flint, creating a shower of sparks, which ignites the powder train
Snaphaunce - trigger releases spring loaded flint strike steel to ignite powder train
Flintlock - trigger releases spring loaded flint to strike steel, simultaneously opening path to powder train, to ignite powder train
Percussion - trigger releases spring loaded hammer to strike cap containing explosive mixture to ignite powder
Inline percussion - trigger releases striker or hammer to cause firing pin to strike cap containing explosive mixture to ignite powder
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