Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with restoring and maintaining health and wellness. Broadly, it is the practical science of preventing and curing diseases. However, medicine often refers more specifically to matters dealt with by physicians and surgeons.
- See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. This article is about medical practice.
Medicine is both an area of knowledge (a science), and the application of that knowledge (the medical profession). The various specialized branches of the science of medicine correspond to equally specialized medical professions dealing with particular organs or diseases. The science of medicine is the body of knowledge about body systems and diseases, while the profession of medicine refers to the social structure of the group of people formally trained to apply that knowledge to treat disease.
There are traditional and schools of healing which are usually not considered to be part of (Western) medicine in a strict sense (see health science for an overview). The most highly developed systems of medicine outside of the Western or Hippocratic tradition are the Ayurvedic school (of India) and traditional Chinese medicine. The remainder of this article focuses on modern (Western) medicine.
History of medicine
See the main articles History of medicine and Timeline of medicine and medical technology
Medicine as it is practiced now is rooted in various traditions, but developed mainly in the late 18th and early 19th century in Germany (Rudolf Virchow) and France (Jean-Martin Charcot and others). The new, "scientific" medicine replaced more traditional views based on the "Four humours". The development of clinical medicine shifted to the United Kingdom and the USA during the early 1900s (Sir William Osler, Harvey Cushing).
Evidence-based medicine is the recent movement to link the practice and the science of medicine more closely through the use of the scientific method and modern information science.
Genomics is already having a large influence on medical practice, as most monogenic genetic disorders have now been linked to causative genes, and molecular biological techniques are influencing medical decision-making.
Medical sciences and health professions
The delivery of modern health care depends, not just on medical practitioners, but on an expanding group of highly trained professionals coming together as an interdisciplinary team. A full list is given on the health profession page. Some examples include: nurses, laboratory scientists, pharmacists, physiotherapists, speech therapists, occupational therapists, dieteticians and bioengineers.
The scope and sciences underpinning human medicine overlap many other fields. Dentistry and psychology, while separate disciplines from medicine, are sometimes also considered medical fields. Physician assistants, nurse practitioners and midwives treat patients and prescribe medication in many legal jurisdictions. Veterinary medicine applies similar techniques to the care of animals.
Medical doctors have many specializations and subspecializations which are listed below.
Basic, supplementary, and related sciences
- Anatomy is the study of the physical structure of organisms. In contrast to macroscopic or gross anatomy, cytology and histology are concerned with microscopic structures.
- Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry taking place in living organisms, especially the structure and function of their chemical components.
- Bioethics is a field of study which concerns the relationship between biology, science, medicine and ethics, philosophy and theology.
- Biostatistics is the application of statistics to biological fields in the broadest sense. A knowledge of biostatistics is essential in the planning, evaluation, and interpretation of medical research. It is also fundamental to epidemiology and evidence-based medicine.
- Cytology is the microscopic study of individual cells.
- Embryology is the study of the early development of organisms.
- Epidemiology is the study of the demographics of disease processes, and includes, but is not limited to, the study of epidemics.
- Genetics is the study of genes, and their role in biological inheritance.
- Histology is the study of the structures of biological tissues by light microscopy, electron microscopy and histochemistry.
- Immunology is the study of the immune system, which includes the innate and adaptive immune system in human, for example.
- Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses.
- Neuroscience is a comprehensive term for those disciplines of science that are related to the study of the nervous system. A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain.
- Pathology is the study of disease - the causes, course, progression and resolution thereof.
- Pharmacology is the study of drugs and their actions.
- Physiology is the study of the normal functioning of the body and the underlying regulatory mechanisms.
- Toxicology is the study of hazardous effects of drugs and poisons.
Diagnostic and imaging specialties
- Clinical laboratory sciences are the clinical diagnostic services which apply laboratory techniques to diagnosis and management of patients. In the United States these services are supervised by a Pathologist. The personnel that work in these departments are technically trained staff, each of whom usually hold a medical technology degree, who actually perform the tests, assays, and procedures needed for providing the specific services.
- Transfusion medicine is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood component, including the maintenance of a "blood bank".
- Cellular pathology is concerned with diagnosis using samples from patients taken as tissues and cells using histology and cytology.
- Clinical chemistry is concerned with diagnosis by making biochemical analysis of blood, body fluids and tissues.
- Hematology is concerned with diagnosis by looking at changes in the cellular composition of the blood and bone marrow as well as the coagulation system in the blood.
- Clinical microbiology is concerned with the in vitro diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
- Clinical immunology is concerned with disorders of the immune system and related body defenses. It also deals with diagnosis of allergy.
- Radiology is concerned with imaging of the human body, e.g. by x-ray, x-ray computed tomography, ultrasonography, and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography.
- Interventional radiology is concerned with using imaging of the human body, usually from CT, ultrasound, or fluoroscopy, to do biopsies, place certain tubes, and perform intravascular procedures.
- Nuclear Medicine uses radioactive substances for in vivo and in vitro diagnosis using either imaging of the location of radioactive substances placed into a patient, or using in vitro diagnostic tests utilizing radioactive substances.
Disciplines of clinical medicine
- Anesthesiology (AE), Anaesthesia (BE), is the clinical discipline concerned with providing anesthesia. Pain medicine is often practiced by specialised anesthesiologists.
- Dermatology is concerned with the skin and its diseases.
- Emergency medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of acute or life-threatening conditions, including trauma, surgical, medical, pediatric, and psychiatric emergencies.
- General practice or family medicine or primary care is, in many countries, the first port-of-call for patients with non-emergency medical problems. Family doctors are usually able to treat over 90% of all complaints without referring to specialists.
- Intensive care medicine is concerned with the therapy of patients with serious and life-threatening disease or injury. Intensive care medicine employs invasive diagnostic techniques and (temporary) replacement of organ functions by technical means.
- Internal medicine is concerned with diseases of inner organs and systemic dieseases of adults, i.e. such that affect the body as a whole. There are several subdisciplines of internal medicine:
- Cardiology is concerned with the heart and cardiovascular system and their diseases.
- Clinical pharmacology is concerned with how systems of therapeutics interact with patients.
- Gastroenterology is concerned with the organs of digestion.
- Endocrinology is concerned with the endocrine system, i.e. endocrine glands and hormones.
- Hematology (or haematology) is concerned with the blood and its diseases.
- Infectious diseases is concerned with the study, diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by biological agents.
- Nephrology is concerned with diseases of the kidneys.
- Oncology is devoted to the study, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other malignant diseases.
- Pulmonology (or chest medicine, respiratory medicine or lung medicine) is concerned with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory system.
- Rheumatology is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the joints and other organ systems.
- Neurology is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of nervous system diseases.
- Obstetrics and gynecology are concerned respectively with childbirth and the female reproductive and associated organs. Reproductive medicine and fertility medicine is generally practiced by gynecological specialists.
- Palliative care is a relatively modern branch of clinical medicine that deals with pain and symptom relief and emotional support in patients with terminal disease (cancer, heart failure).
- Pediatrics (or paediatrics) is devoted to the care of children, and adolescents. Like internal medicine, there are many pediatric supspecialities for specific age ranges, organ systems, disease classes and sites of care delivery. Most subspecialities of adult medicine have a pediatric equivalent such as pediatric cardiology, pediatric endocrinology, pediatric gastroenterology, pediatric hematology, and pediatric oncology.
- Physical medicine and rehabilitation (or physiatry) is concerned with functional improvement after injury, illness, or congenital abnormality.
- Preventive medicine
- Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental disorders. Related non-medical fields are psychotherapy and clinical psychology.
- Radiation therapy is concerned with the therapeutic use of ionizing radiation and high energy elementary particle beams in patient treatment.
- Surgical specialties - there are many medical disciplines that employ operative treatment. Some of these are highly specialized and are often not considered subdisciplines of surgery, although their naming might suggest so.
- General surgery is the specialty of surgery of the skin, locomotor system, and abdominal organs. In the past, it was deemed the pre-requisite training prior to progression to other sub-specialty training, but lately has evolved into its own sub-specialty.
- Cardiovascular surgery is the surgical specialty that is concerned with the heart and major blood vessels of the chest.
- Neurosurgery is concerned with the operative treatment of diseases of the nervous system.
- Oromaxillofacial surgery (technically a subspeciality of dentistry)
- Ophthalmology deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment.
- Orthopedic surgery, surgery of the locomotor system, is generally practiced together with trauma surgery and/or traumatology.
- Otolaryngology (or otorhinolaryngology or ENT/ear-nose-throat) is concerned with treatment of ear, nose and throat disorders.
- Pediatric surgery
- Plastic surgery includes aesthetic surgery (operations that are done for other than medical purposes) as well as reconstructive surgery (operations to restore function and/or appearance after traumatic or operative mutilation).
- Surgical Oncology is concerned with ablative and palliative surgical approaches to cancer treatment
- Urology focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the male reproductive system. It is often practiced together with andrology ("men's health").
- Vascular surgery is surgery of the blood vessels, usually outside of the chest.
Interdisciplinary medical fields
Interdisciplinary sub-specialties of medicine are:
- Aerospace medicine deals with medical problems related to flying and space travel.
- Diving medicine (or "hyperbaric medicine") is the prevention and treatment of diving-related problems.
- Forensic medicine deals with medical questions in legal context, such as determination of the time and cause of death.
- Medical informatics and medical computer science are relatively recent fields that deal with the application of computers and information technology to medicine.
- Nosology is the classification of diseases for various purposes.
Settings where medical care is delivered
See also clinic, hospital, and hospice
Medicine is a diverse field and the provision of medical care is therefore provided in a variety of locations. In addition to inpatient hospital settings, medical services are often provided in locations such as emergency departements, endoscopy departments, outpatients department, operating theaters, and birth suites. Modern medical care also depends on information still delivered in many health care settings on paper records, but with increasing frequency by electronic means.
Teaching of medicine
See also the main articles Medical doctor (BE) and Physician (AE)
Medical training is involves several years of university study followed by several more years of residential practice at a hospital. Entry to a medical degree in some countries (such as the United States) requires the completion of another degree first, while in other countries (such as the Source | Copyright
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The James Lind Library
Documents the evolution of fair tests of medical treatments, with examples from nearly a hundred books and journal articles. Also biographical material, portraits, translations, and commentaries.
A gateway to evaluated, quality Internet resources relating to the history of medicine and allied sciences, developed and managed by the Wellcome Library for the History and Understanding of Medicine.
Mad in America
A history of medical treatments for mental illness, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders, and why those treatments led to the antipsychiatry movement.
Dietetic fragments of Rufus of Ephesos in Syriac language
This site contains an edition of dietetic fragments of Rufus of Ephesos in Syriac language, together with German translation and commentary. PDF (1,3 MB)
ECG Library: A (Not So) Brief History of Electrocardiography
An illustrated timeline from 1600 onwards, including electrocuting chickens (1775) and hypothermic dogs (1953).
Institute for History of Medicine, Robert Bosch Foundation, Stuttgart
The Institute's archives house the private papers of Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), of his second wife Mrs. MÃ©lanie d'Hervilly (1800-1878), and of important students and successors.
Flash-Med:Medicine history and trivia
Medical education resource with facts and trivia about the history of medicine in a question and answer format.
Classical Islamic Biomedicine
Index website maintained by the Karolinska Institute.
Hilary Koprowski, M.D.
This site is dedicated to the career and work of Dr Hilary Koprowski in the field of microbiology, including his pioneering work on live polio vaccines.
College of Physicians of Philadelphia History of Medicine Library, Programs, and Fellowships
Access to one of America's premier research collections in the history of medicine. Information about programs and fellowships organized by the Wood Institute for the History of Medicine.
History of Biomedicine: Indigenous Cultures
Numerous links to web pages on the contributions of indigenous cultures to the practice of medicine, from pre-history to present.
Here Today, Here Tomorrow: Varieties of Medical Ephemera
An online exhibit of medical advertising, labels and other printed materials.
US 19th-Century Doctors' Thoughts about Native American Medicine.
Excerpts from comments made by white doctors on the nature of medical practice among Native Americans.
A collection of early medical items featuring cased surgical, medical, and dental instruments from the 1800's to the early 1900's. Included in the collection are various microscopes and medical items of interest.
H-GIG Medicine and Public Health links.
Useful links from the University of California, Riverside.
Who Named It?
A biographical dictionary of medical eponyms, i.e. medical conditions and techniques and the people for whom they are named.
Ambrose Pare - Journeys in Diverse Places
Writings of the 16th Century French battlefield surgeon Ambroise Pare. Recounts experiences from various battles over a thirty year period including medical procedures in the field. Citation: Pare, Ambroise. Journeys in Diverse Places, translated by Stephen Paget. Vol. XXXVIII, Part 2. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909-14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/38/2/.
English surgeon credied with the introduction of antisepsis. Brief biography and extract from his writings.
Dr. Samuel Overton, 19th Century Rural Physician
Comprehensive study of the life and work of a rural East Texas physician in the last half of the nineteenth century. Based on over 12,500 entries transcribed from his journals.
MMS - materia medica sinica
Online journal for the history of Chinese medicine.
Dr. Grove is the author of "A Human History of Helminthology", "Strongyloidiasis: a major roundworm infection of man" and "Alternative Medicine: fact or fiction?".
Spanish American War Medicine
Medical practice in the Spanish American War, primarily by US Army medical staff and DAR Volunteer nurses upon US soldiers.
Historical Medical Digital Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia
Title pages, contents pages, indexes, illustrations, and extracts from the text of many books availabale online.
The Long View from the Watonwan River: The Millenarian Odyssey of Pioneer Druggist Henry Wellcome
Biography of the co-founder of Burroughs Wellcome, who spent his boyhood on the Minnesota frontier. With footnotes and many links.
150 Years of Anesthesia 1846-1996
"We Have Conquered Pain: A Celebration of Ether," presented by Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard University.
A Visit to the Museum of Contraception
Salon Magazine reviews a Toronto museum dedicated to the history of the prevention of pregnancy.
Dying to Have a Baby - The History of Childbirth
Chronicles the dangers that women and their newborns have faced during labor and delivery.
Every Man His Own Doctor
An online exhibit on Popular Medicine in Early America, from Colonial times to the mid 19th Century.
Indiainfoline presents med milestones giving the major breakthroughs in medical science that took place during the 20th Century.
Centre for the History of Medicine
Established at the University of Birmingham in 2000 to bring together and promote teaching and inter-disciplinary research in the history of medicine and help develop the Medical School's rapidly growing reputation in the field.
Wellcome Library for the History of Medicine
The website of the Wellcome Library - one of the great libraries for the history of medicine. The Library, based in London, is open to visitors. This website provides access to catalogues and other resources
The origins of Chinese medicine - the early development of medical literature in China
A short account of the origins of Chinese medical texts. Written by Imre Galambos (1996)
A Bibliography of Greek and Roman Medicine
Bibliography compiled by Robert Arnott of University of Birmingham. Useful, but few links to full text. Last updated February 2002
Social History of Medicine
Long running journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine. Abstracts available free.
Images from the History of Medicine
Provides access to the nearly 60,000 images in the prints and photograph collection of the History of Medicine Division (HMD) of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). The collection includes portraits, pictures of institutions, caricatures, genre scenes, and graphic art in a variety of media, illustrating the social and historical aspects of medicine.
Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine
The University of Oxford has been one of the major centres for the History of Medicine in Britain over the last thirty years. The subject has attracted scholars and students from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds. Within the University, a key role has been played by the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, founded in 1972 and principally funded by the Wellcome Trust.
Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Resource about Mary Seacole (1805-81), a pioneer nurse and author of an autobiography entitled "Wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands", first published in 1857.
Global Project on the History of Leprosy
The International Leprosy Association is developing a database of leprosy archives around the world.
Dittrick Medical History Center and Museum
Information on medical artifacts, reference materials, rare books, archives, photographic collections.
National Library of Medicine: History of Medicine Division
Extensive collection of material. Open to the public.
Oliva Sabuco, a 16th Century Woman-Philosopher
A pioneer of psychosomatic medicine.
The Museum of Questionable Medical Devices
Dubbed "The Quackery Hall of Fame," the museum is the world's largest display of what the human mind has devised to cure itself without the benefit of either scientific method or common sense.
The International Network for the History of Occupational and Environmental Prevention, who deal with occupational health and the history of medicine.
Ancient Medicine/Medicina Antiqua
Chronicles the practice of Medicine in the Greek and Roman eras, with translations of works by Hippocrates and Galen as well as essays, bibliographies, mailing lists, and othe resources.
Hartford Medical Society
The Society provides an excellent medical library of historical significance and sponsors the Menczer Museum of Medicine and Dentistry in conjunction with the Hartford Dental Society.
The Medicine Museum
An online exhibit of information and photographs of antique allopathic medicines manufactured during 1915-1955.
History of Anaesthesia
GASMAN - A Personal History of Anaesthesia; A memoir and commentary by English anaesthetist John Powell. It also includes other articles on the History of Anaesthesia.
The Orlop Deck
Naval Medicine in the 18th and 19th century. Links to re-enactment sources and medical information for the period.
Sir Henry Wellcome and the Sudan
Archival material and images related to the projects of Sir Henry Wellcome in the Sudan , including an excavation camp and establishment of the Wellcome Tropical research Laboratories in Khartoum.
Sigerist Circle Home Page
Organization of medical historians, focusing on issues of class, race, and gender.
The Reflex Hammer Home Page
Everything you ever wanted to know about reflex hammers, and then some.
Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Official publication of the American Association for the History of Medicine.
The Alan Mason Chesney Medical Archives of The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Introduces the holdings of the archives and opportunities for research. Includes guides to over 100 personal paper collections, photograph inventory, and online exhibits.
American Association of the History of Medicine
An academic society devoted to the history of medicine and health in all of its aspects.
The Scottish Society of the History of Medicine
Website of the Scottish Society of the HIstory of Medicine
R.A. Fisher - collected papers
Ronald Almyer Fisher was the most important figure in 20th century medical statistics. This is a growing collection of his papers and publications.
Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine at the University of Manchester
Offers MA, MSc, PhD and intercalated BSc programmes, a wide variety of course options in the history of science, technology and medicine, and resources for research in these fields.
PolioHistory - Yahoo Group
A place to share stories and resources about the history of polio; from the epidemics, to the vaccines, to post polio syndrome, to eradication.
History of the Health Sciences Web Resources
List of links maintained by Patricia Gallagher and Stephen Greenburg for the History of the Health Sciences Section of MLA
Oxford Brookes University: Medical Video Archive
The Medical Sciences Video Archive of the Royal College of Physicians and Oxford Brookes University is a notable collection of videotaped biographical interviews with over 130 important figures in clinical medicine and science from the United Kingdom and Australia.
Internet Resources on The Tuskegee Study
Internet Resources on the Tuskeegee Study
Syphilis and AIDS: Lessons from history
Transcripts of a two-part radio program from 1996 that placed the responses to AIDS, from both socio-cultural and medical standpoints, in historical perspective. Includes various links.
Selected letters of Florence Nightingale
Alex Peck Antique Scientifica
A resource site of antique medical, surgical, dental, and Civil War medical related artifacts. Fine examples are pictured with authoritative descriptions in an archive.
The Rise of Scientific Medicine
Course notes and presentations from University of Stanford course which explores the historical development of cultural beliefs and institutions in Western Europe and the United States during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which led to the establishment of the modern system of medicine.
The Birth of the Clinic
Hypertext lecture notes on Foucault's account of the development of modern medicine
The Birth of the Clinic
Lois Shawver's notes on Foucault's Birth of the Clinic
A Short History of Medical Careers
From prehistoric shamanism to the 20th Century specialist.
Medical Heritage Center at The Ohio State University
Information on the center's artifact, rare book, and archival collections, which concentrate on the medical history of Central Ohio region.
International Society for the History of Medicine
The International Society for the History of Medicine (ISHM) was founded in Paris in 1921. The purpose of the Society is to assist and support the historical study of all questions relating to the medical and biomedical sciences and, more generally, to all branches of the healing arts.
Index to history of anaestheia resources on the Web
Anesthesia History Association
Explains its purposes, bylaws, and organisational history, and lists its presidents and essay contest winners and their essays. Also links to recent articles on anesthesia history.
A History of Cardiology
University of Iowa online exhibition from 1990. Traces the interwoven history of medical knowledge and technological advance from Galen's early description of the circulatory system to modern breakthroughs in prevention, diagnosis and treatment
Public Record Office | Hospital Records Database
This database provides information on the existence and location of the records of hospitals in the UK. Currently over 2,800 entries can be found by searching the database using the following simple enquiry screen.
Lothian Health Services Archive
The Lothian Health Services Archive is a repository for institutional administrative and clinical records, private papers, photographs and objects relating to the past and present of Lothian health. This website aims to act as a gateway into the Archive, giving information on collections, history, and special ongoing projects and services, as well as details about how to contact and visit us.
A political history of the NHS - sample of full text (PDF)
This is a 64 page sample from the new edition of National Health Service - A Political History, Charles Webster, Senior Research Fellow, All Souls College, Oxford
UK based discussion list for science, technology and medicine studies
Hippocrates - Works
Works, by Hippocrates, translated by Francis Adams. Part of the University of Adelaide Library Electronic Texts Collection
In Our Time: Anatomy
BBC Radio 4 discussion of 2,000 years of the study of human anatomy.
Devoted to the study of ancient medicine. Contains texts and illustrations. Designed to be an internet source that presents the study of ancient medicine in a manner that is both accessible and useful to the general public and to students enrolled in the history course Ancient Medicine (History C380/580), taught by Professor Nancy Demand at Indiana University Bloomington.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Hippocrates
Article by Michael Boylan on this key figure in ancient medicine. [By_Topic/Science/Medicine]
The Virtual Laboratory
The Virtual Laboratory is a platform where historians publish and discuss their research on experimentation in the life sciences, art, and technology. Managed by the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science.
History of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Shows establishment of general practice (family medicine) as a speciality and academic discipline in Great Britain. Includes background history of general practice, foundation of the College, history of the College and its building and detailed chronology by subject. Links to Royal College of General Practitioners Archives pages.
Short article on Cesare Lombroso's theories (in Italian)
Pictures of Health
Health and public health issues in the 19th century, with sections on "Health of the Body Politic", "Fever", "War's Cruel Scythe", "Quacks and Quackery", and "Populate or Perish".
The Hippocratic Wound Healer
Explains the art of of treating open wounds from the fifth century to the second century B.C. in ancient Greece. Lists the medical observations and procedures that were being developed during this era.
Tells the story of the 19th Century man who survived severe damage to the brain, and how the accident led to significant changes in his personality and mood.
A biography of Elizabeth Blackwell, first woman to earn an M.D. and a key figure in the history of medicine. Includes a list of her publications, mention of other famous family members, mention of her Civil War service and links to carefully-selected additional resources.
Southern Association for the History of Medicine and Science
This is the official website of the Southern Association for the History of Medicine and Science
The Prize Microscopes Awarded by the New York Homeopathic Medical College.
From 1874 to 1916 prize microscopes were awarded to top graduates of the New York Homeopathic Medical College. This site is of interest collectors and historians of antique microscopes.
Inhalatorium - inhalation therapy from bygone years
Historic collection of inhaler and asthma therapy. Inhaler devices and adverts, articles and patents for athma therapy. Includes Maxim inhaler, Dr Worst's inhaler, many others. Academic resource.
Antiquarian booksellers specializing in the history of medicine, surgery, nursing, public health, epidemiology, sanitation, infectious diseases, microbiology, parasitology and virology.
The History of Dentistry
The story how dentistry developed through the ages to become the sophisticated medical science of today.
Special collections and archives in the USA
Selected Special Collections and Archives in the History of Medicine
International Network for the History of Hospitals
The Network exists to promote studies related to the historical evolution of hospitals from their beginnings to the present day by providing an international forum for communication and discussion among scholars interested in the subject. Particular encouragement is given to newcomers to the field.
Medicine and Madison Avenue
This website explores the complex relationships between modern medicine and modern advertising, or "Madison Avenue," as the latter is colloquially termed. The Medicine and Madison Avenue Project presents images and database information for approximately 600 health-related advertisements printed in newspapers and magazines.
Medieval medicione - bibliography
useful but not exhaustive
Medical Heritage of Great Britain
Concerns the 'industrial archaeology' of medicine. Produced by the Bath & Wessex Medical History Group.
History of Biomedicine
categorised links, maintained by the Karolinska Institute
Bibliography of Secondary Works in the History of Medicine and Related Health Fields
A non-critical electronic bibliography from the Ruth