An archive is a collection of records, charters and other documents belonging to any state, community or family, and the building(s) it's kept in.
- For alternate uses see: Archive (disambiguation).
A library can be seen as a sort of archive (as can a museum), but the word 'archive' is often used when stressing its role of preservation, rather than that of dissemination.
The word archive (pronounced Ar-kive) is derived from the Greek arkhé meaning government, indicating its importance in the continued life of a community.
Human archives, or organised public or corporate records, are essential to effective day-to-day organisational decision making, but even more than that, to the survival of organisations. Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks and many other peoples including the Aboriginal Australians, whose immensely intricate archives were stored and transmitted orally but with reference markers in the physical landscape. Rock art was also used in Southern Africa which has more sites than in any other part of the world.
In computing, an archive is a bundle of other files contained in one file itself. Technically, archives do not compress, rather just tying together files and their structure, but in reality, many archive formats feature built-in compression, especially on non-Unix platforms.
Ubiquitous amongst Unix and Unix-like operating systems is the tape archive, tar file format. Originally intended for transferring files to and from tape, it is generally used to combine files before they are compressed, usually by gzip or bzip2. Other formats include ar and shar.
On Windows platforms, the most widely-used archive format by far is ZIP; other popular formats are RAR, ACE and ARJ. On Amigas, the standard archive format is LHA, while on Apple Macintosh computers, Stuffit is among the most common.
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AKT Eprints Archive
Electronic archive of the Advanced Knowledge Technology Project. Downloadable papers in knowledge management.
ANU Library Eprints
Browsable electronic pre- and post-print repository of the Australian National University.
Arquivos Abertos da Sociedade Brasileira de GenÃ©tica
(IBICT) Electronic archives of the Brazilian Society for Genetics. Interface in brazilian, papers downloadable in brazilian/english.
An Open Archives Initiative (OAI) compliant archive of electronic preprints in physics, mathematics, computer science, and non-linear sciences. Created by Paul Ginsparg in 1991, it is one of the oldest archives of free online scholarship.
Collection on Critical Global Issues
Full-text access to publications in the fields of agriculture and land management, development, environment and sustainability, food and nutrition, natural resource development, science and technology.
Medical and Health Library
Hosts full-text publications in the fields of clinical treatment, emergencies, essential drugs, family planning, food and nutrition, health education, HIV/AIDS, medical equipment, prevention, public health, sanitation.
Full text of patents issued by the European Patent Organisation (EPO), France, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO). The available patent data go back, in some cases, as far as the year 1900.
National Environmental Publications Information System
(NEPIS) Full text of over 7,000 reports and other documents covering many environmental topics including solid waste disposal, water quality, and pesticide usage and disposal.
US Department of Energy - Energy, Science, and Technology Preprints
Searchable gateway to preprint servers that deal with scientific and technical disciplines such as physics, materials, chemistry, biology, environmental sciences, and nuclear medicine, related to the activity of the department.
World Environment Library
New Zealand Digital Library Project provides full text access to publications in the fields of agriculture, biodiversity, climate change, environmental impact assessment, energy, health, natural resources, policy, sustainable development, waste management and water.
NUI Maynooth Eprint Archive
The National University of Ireland Maynooth's pilot electronic print project is intended to act as a central repository for the research output of NUI Maynooth academic staff and departments.
Institut Nicod Eprints Archive
Online research papers in philosophy, sociology and cognitive science of the Jean Nicod Institute's members.
Sissa Multimedia Database
Eprints archive of the International School for Advanced Studies. Online papers in physical sciences and mathematics.
Gives access to a large number of eprints archives and electronic resources and through the OAI harvesting protocol reveals digital resources previously "hidden" from users behind web scripts.
French digital archive providing free access to full-text papers in the domain of information and communication science [bilingual site in english/french].
Computer Science Technical Reports
Free access to more than 45,000 technical reports in computer science extracted from nearly 300 sites around the world.
Department of Energy Information Bridge
Full-text research and development reports in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental sciences, energy technologies, engineering, computer and information science, renewable energy, and other topics.
Caltech Computer Science Technical Reports
Electronic archive of freely downloadable full-text technical reports in PDF format.
Caltech Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory
Archive of freely downloadable technical reports from several labs in the domain of earth sciences at CalTech.
Caltech Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Searchable and browsable repository of theses and dissertations from Caltech.
Caltech Library System Papers and Publications
Eprint repository of academic papers in the field of library and information science.
Fourth International Symposium on Cavitation
(CAV 2001) Proceedings of the symposium, downloadable from this electronic repository hosted by the Caltech Library System.
Centre for Experimental and Constructive Mathematics
(CECM) Preprint service of the institute, provides access to full-text papers starting from 1993.
CCSD: Hyper Article Online
An interface for submitting scientific papers to the article database of the french Centre pour la Communication Scientifique Directe. Papers in mathematics, physics, information science are instantly and automatically directed to "arXiv" [bilingual site in english/french].
Makes preprints and reprints of papers in all areas of the cognitive sciences freely available on-line. Authors can deposit their work in the archive after a (free) registration.
Documents in Information Science
(DoIS) - Database of articles and conference proceedings published in electronic format in the field of library and Information science.
University of California
Service provider hosting electronic archives for research units and departments at the University of California.
EPrints in Library and Information Science
E-LIS is an open access archive to deposit preprints, postprints and other documents in the field of library and information science in electronic format.
Autonomously creates citation indexes of electronic commerce literature. It generates citation statistics and allows easy browsing of the context of citations. Indexed documents include full-text in PDF and PS format.
Open access archive for papers related to research in organic agriculture.
An electronic archive for preprints in the philosophy of science.
Autonomously creates citation indexes of scientific literature. Generates citation statistics and allows easy browsing of the context of citations. Texts freely available in PDF, PS, HTML format..
University of Trento Eprints archive
A digital repository (OAI compliant) of full-text scientific publications produced by professors and researchers of the University of Trento, Italy.
CERN Document Server
Articles and preprints collection aiming to cover the published and pre-published literature in particle physics and its related technologies. The collection contains about 400,000 documents, many of which in full-text access.
Centre for Logic, Epistemology and the History of Science
Preprints by members and visiting researchers of the CLE, a research institute at the University of Campinas, Brazil.
The Computation and Language Eprint Archive
An electronic repository of full-text papers in computational linguistics, natural language processing, speech processing.
Cryptology Eprint Archive
Provides access to author-submitted research papers in cryptology.
The Digital Library of the Commons
Gateway to the international literature on the commons, this working paper archive provides access to author-submitted papers, as well as full-text conference papers, dissertations, working pre-prints and reports.
Digital Library of Information Science and Technology
(DLIST) Developed by the School of Information Resources and Library Science and the Arizona Health Sciences Library at the University of Arizona using Open Archives Initiative (OAI) compliant Eprints v.2 software.
Document and Publication Server of the Humboldt University of Berlin.
(EDOC) Provides free access to publications, theses and dissertations, electronic e-print journals [site in english/german].
Eprint repository of french theses in various scientific domains [bilingual site in french/english].
Computer Science Teaching Center
A digital archive of peer reviewed resources for teaching computer science. Submission restricted to registered users.
Digital Library and Archives - Virginia Tech
Open Archive Initiative (OAI) compliant digital repository. E-journals, electronic theses and dissertations, faculty archives.
Elektronische Bibliothek der Staats- und UniversitÃ¤tsbibliothek Bremen
Digital archive providing full-text access to papers, theses and dissertations in PDF format.
Electronic Publications of the WU-Wien
Electronic archive providing full-text access to working papers and dissertations of the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration.
Free Full-Text Science Archives
A directory with annotated links to institutional full-text scientific archives.
An electronic archive for papers produced by members of the Hofstra University Community. It includes papers written by faculty and administrators, papers delivered at Hofstra University sponsored conferences as well as invited lectures.
History and Theory of Psychology Prints
(HTP) Gives access to full-text of refereed papers. Registered users may also deposit appropriate material.
IOWA University - Computer Science Technical Reports
Digital repository of full-text technical reports downloadable in multiple formats.
NASA Astrophysic Data System
Free online abstracts and full-text papers in astronomy, astrophysics, planetary sciences, and solar physics.
An experimental project to investigate the institutional use of eprints services at the University of Nottingham. Browsable and searchable digital archives of several research units and departments.
Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science
(RIACS) Free access to full-text technical reports in PDF format, covering topics such as automated reasoning for autonomous systems, high performance computing and networking, human-centered computing.
Southampton CiteBase Services
Eprints service provider hosting digital archives of the University of Southampton.
The Chemistry Preprint Server
Permanent web archive and distribution medium for research articles in the field of chemistry. CPS allows users to submit their articles to the server where they become accessible to all the members of ChemWeb. Free registration.
UniversitÃ degli Studi di Firenze
Institutional eprints archive hosted by the library services of the University of Florence.
Uppsala University Publications
Full-text working papers and research reports in PDF format.
Virginia Tech - Electronic Theses
Searchable and browsable digital archive of theses and dissertations.