QuantumA quantum is the smallest increment into which many physical properties are subdivided.
Most commonly, quanta are the fundamental units of something measurable. Energy, for example, is quantized into photons, wavelike packets of fixed frequency. Quantum physics was founded at the beginning of the twentieth century, incorporating at a foundational level the idea that electromagnetic radiation comes in such packets; the concepts of quantum theory have proved paradoxical, and difficult to articulate in any familiar terms, but the theory built up into quantum field theory was the largest single step in the physical sciences between 1900 and 1950.
The word quantum comes from the Latin word for "quantity".
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The Transactional Interpretation
A comprehensive review of the historical interpretations of quantum mechanics, as well as a new proposal
The Everett Interpretation FAQ
A set of frequently asked questions on Everett's many worlds approach to quantum mechanics
Many Worlds Quantum Theory
A collection of links to sites related to the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
The Copenhagen Interpretation
A review of the copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics
Everett's Relative-State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics
Describes Everett's attempt to solve the measurement problem by dropping the collapse dynamics from the standard von Neumann-Dirac theory of quantum mechanics. From the Stanford Encyclopedia.
Discussions with Einstein on Epistemological Problems in Atomic Physics
Report by Niels Bohr of his discussions with Albert Einstein over many years on the epistemological implications of quantum theory.
Measurement in Quantum Theory
Collapse of the wave function, role of the observer in QM; From the Stanford Encyclopedia, by Henry Krips.
On the Interpretation and Philosophical Foundation of QM
Historical Overview -objective randomness of the individual quantum
Interpretation and Philosophical Foundation of Quantum Mechanics
The epistemological paradigm on which we could build a foundation of quantum mechanics has not been found yet. (contains untranslated quotes in German).
Heisenberg's Physics and Philosophy
History of QM and Copenhagen Interpretation
Measurement in quantum mechanics FAQ
Lucid description of exisitng Interpretations and their problems, acessible to general public.
Indeterminism and the Bohm Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
In this essay it is argued that it is possible to subscribe to the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics without giving up indeterminism in nature.
Directing the strokes of Ockham's razor
Skeptic (may be flippant but short) overview of the Interpretations
Realistic interpretations of QM
Readable description with historical and philosophical references.
Foundations of Quantum Mechanics
John Bell and Bohmian QM
This FAQ shows how quantum paradoxes are resolved by the "many-worlds" interpretation or metatheory of quantum mechanics. This FAQ does not seek to prove that the many-worlds interpretation is the "correct" quantum metatheory, merely to correct some of the common errors and misinformation on the subject.
The Kochen-Specker Theorem
From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Carsten Held.
The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
First interpretation of quantum mechanics due to Niels Bohr
The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
Interpretation of quantum mechanics due to Hugh Everett according to which many universes exist in parallel at the same space and time.
Relational Quantum Mechanics
An interpretation of quantum theory which discards the notions of absolute state of a system, absolute value of its physical quantities, or absolute event; from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Federico Laudisa and Carlo Rovelli.
Survey of the dynamical reduction program; from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Giancarlo Ghirardi.
In the beginning was the bit
An article in New Scientist about the latest ideas of Anton Zeilinger and Caslav Brukner.
Mangled Worlds Quantum Mechanics
Describes a variation on the many worlds interpretation in which the Born probability rule can be derived via finite world counting.
Brief exploration of issues surrounding Quantum Mechanics and reality.
Against Many Worlds Interpretation
A paper which indicates the Many Worlds Interpretation of quantum mechanics is invalid
A Survey on Bohmian Mechanics
Bohmian mechanics is the most obvious embedding of Schrodinger's equation into a completely coherent physical theory
The Ithaca Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics
Criteria for a 'good' interpretation of QM