Museum"A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, and open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, material evidence of people and their environment."
(ICOM Statutes, article 2, para. 1. This definition was adopted by the ICOM General Assembly in Copenhagen in 1974.)
Modern museums concentrate on a particular subject, and most museums belong to one or more of the following categories: fine arts, applied arts, archaeology, anthropology, ethnology, history, cultural history, science, technology, natural history. Within these categories many museums specialize further, e.g. museums of modern art, local history, aviation history, ariculture or geology.
Open air museums collect and reerect old buildings at large out-door sites, usually in settings of re-created landscapes of the past. The first one was King Oscar II's collection near Oslo in Norway, opened in 1881. In 1891 Arthur Hazelius founded the famous Skansen in Stockholm, which became the model for subsequent open air museums in Northern and Eastern Europe, and eventually in other parts of the world. Most open air museums are located in regions where wooden architecture prevail, as wooden structures may be translocated without substantial loss of authenticity.
A more recent but related idea is realized in the ecomuseums, which originated in France.
Early museums began as princely collections of art and rare or curious natural objects and artefacts.
Museums are usually open to the general public for a fee. Some museums have free entrance, either permanently or on special days, e.g. once per week or year.
The museum is usually run by a curator, who has a staff that cares for the objects and arranges their display. Many museums have associated research institutes, which are frequently involved with studies related to the museum's items.
Either the museum itself or an associated institute may organize expeditions to acquire more items or documentation for the museum, an activity famously depicted in the opening of the movie Raiders of the Lost Ark.
Museums may also acquire items through donations, sales or trades. For instance, a museum featuring Impressionist art may receive a donation of a Cubist work which simply cannot be fit into the museum's exhibits, but it can be used to help acquire a more relevant painting. Larger museums will have an "Acquisitions Department" whose staff is engaged fulltime in this kind of activity.
Museums often cooperate to sponsor joint and often traveling exhibits on particular subjects where one museum may not have a sufficient collection or where the greatest works on a subject are collected. These exhibits have limited engagements and often require an additional entry fee.
The word comes from the Latin museum, which is in turn derived from the Greek mouseion, which refers to a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, the patron divinities in Greek mythology of the arts.
The International Council of Museums (ICOM) is an international organisation of museums and museum professionals which is committed to the conservation, continuation and communication to society of the world's natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible. Created in 1946, ICOM is a non-governmental organisation maintaining formal relations with and having a consultative status with UNESCO. As a non-profit organisation, ICOM is financed primarily by membership fees and supported by various governmental and other bodies. It carries out part of UNESCO's programme for museums. Based in Paris (France), the ICOM Headquarters houses both the ICOM Secretariat and the UNESCO-ICOM Museum Information Centre.
Notable international museum designers include Ralph Appelbaum and Edwin Schlossberg.
Source | Copyright
Webmasters: Add your website here:
Readers: Edit |
Hands-on museum of science, art, and human perception in San Francisco. Site provides interactive online exhibits and exhibitions, activities, science news, and publications, general information about the museum.
Lawrence Hall of Science
Public science museum and research center for K-12 education at the University of California, Berkeley. LHS offers hands-on science exhibits, discovery laboratories, computer labs, planetarium shows, after-school classes and summer camps, family workshops, special events, school programs and teacher education.
Miami Museum of Science
Showcases interactive exhibitions on science, multi-media technology and sports. Includes Space Transit Planetarium and Falcon Batchelor Bird of Prey Center.
Imagination Station Science Museum
Features hands on science exhibits for the family.
The Museum of Discovery and Science
Hands on science and technology exhibits, live animal presentations and an Imax 3D theater.
Museum of Science
Features a revolving schedule of Imax films, temporary exhibitions and planetarium shows. Includes online exhibits.
The National Museum of Science and Industry
Consisting of the Science Museum, London, the National Museum of Photography, Film and Television, Bradford, and the National Railway Museum, York.
New York Hall of Science
Exhibits, often interactive, on sound, light, atoms, microbes, AIDS, astronomy. Includes a science playground. Considered one of the top ten science museums in the country.
Carnegie Science Center
National Museum of Science and Technology Leonardo da Vinci - Milano, Italia
Diversified technical and scientific museum in Milan, Italy. Collections, exhibits, and extensive Web resources about technology and the history of technology. Also, both museum and Web site feature material about the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci.
Science Center of Connecticut
Information on exhibits, programs and special events.
Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC U.S.A.
Virginia Living Museum
A combination wildlife park, science museum, aquarium, and botanical preserve in Newport News, Virginia.
Museum of Science and Industry
Chicago science museum features a coal mine, a U-505 submarine, intelligent LEGO bricks, and travel through virtual reality.
The Franklin Institute Science Museum
Features an exhibit on the life of Ben Franklin, a walk-through heart, historic aircraft, an Imax theater, and planetarium. Site has online exhibits and many other web-related science learning resources.
Science Museum of Minnesota (St. Paul)
Features dinosaurs, an Omnitheater, school programs, Mississippi Riverfront parks, and hands-on exhibits.
Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Institution
Study of geology, natural history and ethnology; featuring fossil collection of William Smith, 'father of English geology.'
California Science Center
Museum and exhibits profile, IMAX schedule, and calendar of upcoming events for the interactive learning facility.
Museum of the History of Science, University of Oxford
British museum exhibiting the history of science. Online exhibits include "The Noble Dane: Images of Tycho Brahe" and "The Geometry of War, 1500-1750".
Oregon Museum of Science and Industry
Portland, Oregon museum includes online science resources for teachers, students, and everyone interested in science.
Detroit Science Center
Includes over 25 hands on exhibits offering live interactive science demonstrations in the Discovery Theater.
Science centre includes 300 exhibits concentrating on nature and technology, the environment, and health.
Goudreau Museum of Mathematics in Art and Science
New York museum featuring exhibits of math applications in art and science, special programs, and a museum library.
Dedicated to all things 3D, including holograms and lenticular images. Located on the Isle of Wight, UK.
Impression 5 Science Center
General information on the Lansing, Michigan hands-on science and technology center.
The Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester, England
Virtual exhibits on everything from locomotives and aircrafts, to photography and nuclear power.
Newcastle Regional Museum
The Newcastle Regional Museum in NSW is the largest regional museum in Australia. The NRM incorporates the Supernova hands on science centre. General entry to the NRM is free.
Liberty Science Center
Science museum in New Jersey. Explore LSC's three themed floors: Environment, Health, and Invention, featuring dozens of exciting hands-on exhibits.
The Nobel Museum
Information about the Centennial Exhibition of the Nobel Prizes which will open in 2001 and about the plans for establishment of a permanent Nobel Museum in Stockholm.
Science East Science Centre
Features fun and educational interactive science exhibits for children and adults. Located in Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.
London museum and library of science. Exhibitions cover all areas of science and technology. Includes online exhibits and a learning area.
The Whipple Museum of the History of Science
Collections, exhibitions, publications. University of Cambridge, UK.
Adventure Science Center
Current program listings for the science museum and the Sudekum Planetarium, along with information on hours and admission fees. Nashville, Tennessee.
The Bradbury Science Museum
The history of Los Alamos and the Manhattan Project, as well as over 40 interactive exhibits within five galleries at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico.
The Museum of Science and Technology
Exhibits of Swedish engineering and industrial history.
Canadian National Museum of Science and Technology
Features educational activities, online exhibits, and museum events. Located in Ottawa.
Mid-America Science Museum
Offers interactive exhibits that explore such subjects as perception, energy, sound, light and gravity. Visitors can fly a hot-air balloon, generate electricity, see a laser light show or walk along nature trails. Includes brief history of museum, hours, admission rates and directions. Located in Hot Springs, Arkansas.
Sharjah Science Museum
Features interactive, hands-on exhibits. Includes hours, fees, events, demonstrations, learning center, directions. Located in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Featuring interactive exhibits, live demonstrations and performances. Includes hours, fees, membership details, events, programs, volunteer opportunities and directions.Located in Ashland, Oregon.
Buffalo Museum of Science
Natural science museum with permanent, traveling and hands-on exhibits from anthropology, botany, geology, entomology, and zoology. Site has directions, hours, contact information and a calendar of events.
Fort Worth Museum of Science and History
Includes an Omni Theater, four core exhibit galleries, a special exhibit hall, outdoor excavations, the Noble Planetarium, and special programs for children.
Pacific Science Center
Detailed information on shows and events. Located in Seattle.
UK National Space Centre
Features hands-on interactive exhibits, real rockets, and a Space Theatre. Located in Leicester.
Casa de las Ciencias (House of Sciences)
About exhibits, activities and publications of the first public Science Centre of Spain, in Corunna. It includes three places: Planetarium, Domus or House of Man and Aquarium Finisterrae.
Arizona Science Center
Planetarium, hands-on learning exhibits and IMAX theatre. Phoenix, Arizona.
Science Center dealing with topics such as food, nutrition, agriculture, with a historical approach on a worldwide scale. Montpellier, France.
Alaskan hands on science discovery center.
Featuring hands-on exhibits, live demonstrations, tours, activities and shows. Includes hours, information for teachers, admission rates and directions. Located in Victoria, Australia.
Natural Science Center of Greensboro
Features hands-on exhibits, zoo, and planetarium. Includes hours, upcoming events, admission, membership details and directions. Located in Greensboro, North Carolina.
Rochester Museum & Science Center
Features over 1.2 million regional history, anthropology, natural sciences, and archives objects, planetarium and nature center. Includes programs and events, membership and volunteer details, hours, admission and directions. Located in Rochester, New York.
Liebig Museum, Giessen, Germany
Overall description, history, opening hours and entrance fees of the museum dedicated to the chemist Justus Liebig.
Hatfield Marine Science Visitor Center
Part aquarium and part laboratory, the center showcases scientific explorations of the marine world by researchers based at the Oregon State University.
Ontario Science Centre in Toronto, Canada
Outstanding online science and technology educational resources and fascinating real exhibits.
The Danish Lake District Eco-Museum
Includes five areas: Skanderborg Museum, Monastic Museum of Denmark, Gl.Rye Mill and Wooden-Shoe Museum, The Freshwater Museum, and KlostermÃ¸lle Nature Center. Exhibits feature geology, natural history and cultural history. Includes map and contact information.
National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (MeSci)
Features the global environment and frontier, life sciences and humans, technological revolution and the future, and information science. Includes visitor's guide. Located in Tokyo, Japan. [Japanese and English]
Museum of Science and Technology in Pretoria
Oldest hands-on science museum in South Africa. Includes history of the facility, photos, outreach programs and contact information.
Science Center of Iowa
Features interactive exhibits, programs and a planetarium. Permanent exhibits include Hubble space telescope display and the Foucault Pendulum. Includes details of exhibits, programs, events calendar, hours, admission and location.
Long Island ScienCenter
Provide a hands-on learning experience to people of all ages through discovery, exhibits, and activities centered around mathematics, science, and technology. Includes floor plan. Located in Riverhead, New York.
Philippine Science Centrum
First hands-on, interactive science museum in the Philippines. Includes services and contact information. Located in Manila.
Museum of Science & History
Features interactive exibits, special events, and the Alexander Brest Planetarium. Includes hours, fees, daily programs, member benefits and directions. Located in Jacksonville, Florida.
Bermuda Underwater Exploration Institute
Focusing on marine biology, the technology of underwater exploration and deep-ocean ecology. Includes details of exhibits, calendar of events, educational programs, membership and volunteer information, and contacts. Located in Pembroke.
The Radome, Museum of Telecommunications
Features a gigantic cone-shaped antenna which weighs 340 tons, interactive activities, shows and displays. Includes hours, rates and contact information. Located in France. French and English].
The Mary Brogan Museum of Art and Science
Features planetarium, interactive exhibits. Includes hours, fees, membership, upcoming exhibits, educational programs, volunteer opportunities, directions. Located in Tallahassee, Florida.
The National Inventors Hall of Fame.
American Museum of Science and Energy, Oak Ridge, TN
The largest exhibition of energy related exhibits in the United States. Includes live demonstrations, videos, hands-on exhibits and special events.
Israel National Museum of Science
Contains over 200 hands on science and technology exhibits.
Kirkpatrick Science and Air Space Museum
Offers a diverse collection of interactive and historic exhibits and programs.