One might be looking for the academic discipline of communications.
Synonyms: --- ral.
Speech can be described as the act of producing voice through the use of the vocal chords or other means, such as sign language, to create linguistic acts that communicate information from a initiator to a recipient.
In more colloquial terms, speech can be described in several different ways:
However, speech can also take place inside one's head, known as intrapersonal communication, for example, when one thinks or utters sounds of approval or disapproval. At a deeper level, one could even consider subconscious processes, including dreams where aspects of oneself communicate with each other (see Sigmund Freud), as part of intrapersonal communication, even though most human beings do not seem to have direct access to such communication.
- A linguistic act designed to convey information.
- Various types of linguistic acts where the audience consists of more than one individual, including public speaking, oration, and quotation.
- The physical act of speaking, primarily through the use of vocal chords to produce voice. See phonology and linguistics for more detailed information on the physical act of speaking.
There are several factors that can affect the quality of speech as such. Among these are:
Thus, it is clear that speech has both expressive and receptive elements. The purpose of speech can be to convey meaning or to increase social bonds between individuals and/or groups (it is often both). For the latter shallowness is not a problem. The success of a speech act depends on numerous factors, including the presence or absence of a variety of speech disorders, the ability of the speaker to express the intended message, and the ability and willingness of the audience to play the role of recipient.
- Diseases and disorders of the lungs or the vocal chords, including paralysis, respiratory infections, and cancers of the lungs and throat.
- Diseases and disorders of the brain, including alogia, aphasias and speech processing disorders, where impaired perception of the message (as opposed to the actual sound) leads to poor speech production.
- Articulatory problems, such as stuttering, lisping, cleft palate, ataxia, or nerve damage leading to problems in articulation. Tourette syndrome and nervous tics can also affect speech.
- Problems in the perception of sound and auditory information can affect speech. In addition to aphasias, anomia and certain types of dyslexia can impede the quality of auditory perception, and therefore, expression. Hearing impairments and deafness can be considered to fall into this category.
Glossophobia is the fear of public speaking.
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IBM Software - Speech Recognition
Big Blue's ViaVoice offerings in the desktop continuous speech dictation arena. Competes with Dragon Systems. Has mobile dictation and telephony products as well. Has continuous speech recognition for the Apple Macintosh.
IMSI Utilities Group licenses IBM ViaVoice technology to produce their own line of "VoiceDirect" dictation software.
Natural Language Recognition
Simplis, Inc, provides a Java based "natural language" speech recognition interface designed to simplify access to existing programs and web applications.
Speech Recognition News and Studies
TMA Associates publishes Speech Recognition Update, an industry newsletter on the business, products, markets, and companies in speech recognition, text-to-speech, and speaker verification. The site contains headlines and recent news, as well as descriptions of TMA conferences and market studies in speech recognition.
HAL Hits the Home
Voice recognition software (with product names HAL2000) for Windows 95/98 that supports air conditioning, telephony, infrared, Internet, X-10 and security - for use in home systems. Site gives audio examples of the interactions possible.
Speech Technology Magazine
Online edition of the magazine, plus information on an annual 'SpeechTEK' speech technology business exposition.
Applied Technologies on Language and Speech: IberVox ASR
Barcelona based firm offering speech recognition, TTS and VoiceXML products for Spanish, Catalan, Basque, Portuguese, and the varieties of Spanish spoken in Latin America.
Verbatim Careers Institute
Offers training for new careers made possible by advances in speech recognition technology.
Voice Technology in Warehouse Management
A guide to the use of speech technology in warehouse management systems - FAQs, white papers and articles.
Deploys Microsoft speech server technology focused on three software solutions and product areas: the Internet, mobile reach and call centre/cnterprise interfaces. Based South Africa.
Provides voice-based technology that enables warehouse workers to achieve higher levels of productivity and accuracy while reducing operational costs.
20/20 Speech develops and supplies proprietary speech recognition and text to speech software products and solutions for portable devices and media management applications such as subtitle generation or synchronization of video to legal dispositions.
Answers For Executives
Site addressing typical questions executives might have about speech recognition for offices and companies. Contains product reviews, installation guidelines, provocative analysis of the industry for people who would rather use voice technology instead of typing.
Pretty Good Privacy internet phone allows encrypted talking over a network. MAC and PC versions available.
Grover Industries, Inc.
Provides command and control applications for internet and desktop contexts.
Danish startup specializing in developing mobile phone speech solutions that are integrated with Internet information systems.
Speech Technology Center
Russian organization providing unusual variety of speech processing products and services for research and development, speech recognition, voice verification, speaker identification, noise reduction in speech signals, noise cancellation, forensic examination, audio analysis, logging and communication channel protection.
Scansoft - Dragon Naturally Speaking
Acquired Lernout & Hauspie, Dragon Systems speech recognition and synthesis resources and products. Also known for digital imaging products.
Speaker independent (no training required) voice control software for Windows games replaces keystrokes with voice commands for popular games. Template files, patches, message boards, downloads, free trial version.
Guardian Business Solutions, Inc.
Warehouse applications using voice, wireless, and wearable technologies to provide automation and productivity solutions for warehouse management, distribution, and manufacturing systems. Partnered with Syvox.
Site sells a large-vocabulary continuous speech recognizer that runs on a PDA. Current offering (free beta download) is a voice enabled address book for Win 95, Win 98, Win NT, Win CE, Pocket PC.
Speech recognition, text-to-speech software transforms a Windows computer into a conversational desktop companion. Provides dictation, web navigation, voice email, web cams, on-line news, weather maps, stock ticker, X10 home automation, MP3 music player, 3D avatar, disabilities features. Project in progress.
Speech Recognition for In-car Use
Germany based BÃ¶hme Datentechnik deals in hands-free systems having echo and noise cancellation features.
Speech and Handwriting Recognition for Wireless
Advanced Recognition Technologies, Inc. - designs, develops and distributes speech and handwriting recognition software products and technologies focusing on embedded software for cellular devices, mobile communicators, and PDAs.
An ongoing speech recognition project for the Apple Macintosh, currently concentrating on enhancing command and control.
Fourth Annual Telephony Voice User Interface Conference
Brings together leading managers, experts and investors in speech recognition and telephony, to explore the business opportunities created by telephone speech recognition, text-to-speech synthesis, and voice web technology. February 4-6 2002
Open Source Speech Recognition System
Carnegie Mellon Sphinx project. Real-time continuous speech recognition system. Downloadable source for Linux/Unix and Windows NT or later.
Philips Speech Processing
Worldwide provider of speech recognition solutions for telephony, voice portals, automotive and consumer embedded systems, medical and legal dictation with multi-lingual capabilities. SDK's available for inclusion of speech recognition in business systems.
Computational Computing Corp. sells application specific speech enabled products including voice responsive browsers, office messaging system, speech SDK's for mobile devices, telephony speech servers.
Speech Recognition Resources
Broad collection of site links to speech recognition companies, services, products, magazines, trade shows, books, developer tools and online resources with a brief personal summary of each.
Natspeak Information Pages
An unusual compendium of insider knowledge about Dragon Systems NaturallySpeaking speech recognition products. Downloadable utilities, tips for improved usage as well as a detailed, programmer oriented explanation of techniques for adding extended macro capabilities using Python code and custom grammar files. Generally oriented towards versions 4.0 and lower but still insightful for later versions. Hosted by Synapse Adaptive, provider of a wide range of assistive technologies.
A speech technology brokering firm bringing together suppliers of speech technology products, start-ups, merger candidates, funding sources, marketing or outsourcing services.